“Acts of significant evil” :: Case Details

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Acts of significant evil


The accounts below bring together cases of 98 Tibetans in which family members, friends, or by-standers who may have witnessed a self-immolation, are accused of “involvement” and are detained, disappeared or sentenced to a prison term in the context of an increasingly aggressive and formalized drive by the Chinese authorities to criminalize self-immolations. In a number of cases, individuals have been disappeared, or there is fear for disappearance.[1]

Furthermore, the below documentation indicates that at least 15 Tibetans have been sentenced on charges of “intentional homicide,” 11 of whom have been sentenced after the new regulations had been published in December 2012.

Altogether, the accounts below have been researched over the period between 2010 and 2014. In fact, there may have been many more instances of persecution of Tibetans in this context, which have not become public or which could not be researched and thus have not been included in this report. Reports in Chinese state media imply that many more detentions have taken place than those we have been able to document here.

Information about the current status of many of those detained is not available due to restrictions on information flow in the area and dangers faced by Tibetans in sharing any information.

Note: The listed ages of the persons referenced in the cases are relevant to the time that the incident took place (self-immolation, detention, arrest, sentencing) as reflected in ICT’s reporting at the time.


1. One sentenced following the self-immolation of the monk Tapey in Ngaba (February 2009)

Jamyang Phuntsog

Jamyang Phuntsog

NAME
Jamyang Phuntsog (Jiayang Pingcuo, 嘉央 平措)

SENTENCE
Six years, April 9, 2010

LOCATION
Ngaba, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tapey (Zha Bai, 扎白)
Date: February 27, 2009
Location: Ngaba
ICT report:Monk in Tibet sets himself on fire; shot by police during protest,” February 29, 2009

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Both from Kirti monastery

A monk called Jamyang Phuntsog was sentenced to six years in prison on April 9, 2010, after he was detained from his monastery, Kirti in Ngaba, on March 3, 2009, following the self-immolation of Tapey in February 2009.

The first self-immolation in Tibet was carried out by a Kirti monk, Tapey, in Ngaba, and Kirti monks dominated in the total of self-immolations in the first two years; current or former Kirti monks made up 12 of the first 23 self-immolations (February 27, 2009, to February 19, 2012). As the frequency of self-immolations has increased and spread geographically across Tibet, the prevalence of Kirti Monastery monks among self-immolators decreased, and laypeople in different areas of Tibet have come to dominate the total.

Kirti monastery is one of the most important and influential religious institutions in Tibet and has become subject to an even more stringent crackdown since the self-immolations began.

Jamyang Phuntsog was detained from his room at Kirti monastery on 3 March 2009, according to Kirti monks in exile. He was detained without trial until 9 April, 2009, and is believed to have been charged with leaking information about the self-immolation. According to the same sources, he may simply have witnessed the self-immolation.

Jamyang Phuntsog, who joined Kirti monastery when he was very young, is now serving his imprisonment in Mianyang prison near Chengdu, the provincial capital of Sichuan, where a number of Tibetan political prisoners are held, according to the same sources.

On February 27, 2009, Kirti monk Tapey became the first Tibetan in Tibet to self-immolate. Tapey, a monk in his mid-twenties, walked alone to a nearby crossroads in the market area of the town, where he set himself on fire and raised a home-made Tibetan flag that had at its center a photograph of the Dalai Lama. When Tapey began to shout slogans, People’s Armed Police (PAP) personnel stationed nearby opened fire, and Tapey fell to the ground. Reports indicate that the PAP extinguished the fire after Tapey was shot and he was immediately taken away by police. He survived the self-immolation and his whereabouts and current welfare is not known.


2a. Four sentenced after the self-immolation of Phuntsog in Ngaba (March 2011)

Lobsang Tsundue and Lobsang Dargye

Lobsang Tsundue and Lobsang Dargye

NAMES
Lobsang Tsundue (Losang Drongdru, Luosng Zunzhui, 洛桑尊追)
Lobsang Dargye (Luosang Daji, 洛桑 达吉)
Lobsang Tenzin (aka Nak Ten or Tenchum, Luosang Danzeng, 洛桑丹增)
Lobsang Tenzin (Luosang Danzeng, 洛桑丹增)

SENTENCES
Lobsang Tsundue (Drongdru), 11 years, August 20, 2011
Lobsang Dargye, three years, date not confirmed
Lobsang Tenzin (aka Nak Ten), 10 years, August 30, 2011
Lobsang Tenzin, 13 years, August 30, 2011

LOCATION
Ngaba, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Phuntsog (Pun Cuo, 彭措)
Date: March 16, 2011
Location: Ngaba
ICT report:Monk immolates himself; major protests at Tibetan monastery violently suppressed,” March 16, 2011

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: All were fellow monks at Kirti monastery; two were relatives

Four monks at Kirti monastery were sentenced on ‘intentional homicide’ charges following the self-immolation and death of Phuntsog – the first such cases prior to the imposition of the Gansu “guidelines” in 2012.

The sentencing appeared to be purely political; there was no evidence that the three monks had any involvement in Phuntsog’s solitary act of self-immolation or subsequent death, other than possibly seeking to protect him from further harm before he died in the hospital. One of the monks sentenced, Lobsang Tsundue, is the uncle of the monk who died.

According to an official media report, on August 29, 2011, the Barkham (Ma’erkang) County People’s Court in Ngaba (Aba) prefecture sentenced Kirti monk Lobsang Tsundue, named in the report as “Drongdru” to 11 years imprisonment for ‘intentional homicide’ because he allegedly “hid the injured monk and prevented emergency treatment, causing the 16-year old’s death due to belated treatment,” according to the verdict.[2]

None of the official reports on the sentencing provided information about evidence proving that intended to murder Phuntsog. The Xinhua report did not provide information about the legal proceedings against Tsundue or his access to legal counsel, but asserted that he pleaded guilty and would not appeal the verdict. The news about the sentencing was the first that the family had heard about him since his detention four months earlier.

Two days later, Xinhua reported that two monks, both named Lobsang Tenzin, were sentenced to 13 years and ten years in prison respectively for the ‘intentional homicide’ of Phuntsog, as they “plotted, instigated and assisted in the self-immolation of fellow monk Rigzin Phuntsog, causing his death” (Xinhua, August 31, 2011).

The same article stated that a fourth monk, named as ‘Dorje’ would also face criminal prosecution linked to Phuntsog’s death. According to unofficial Tibetan sources, Lobsang Dargye (Dorje) was sentenced to three years in prison.

The official report provided no information on the evidence against Lobsang Tenzin and Tenchum, the legal proceedings against them, or their access to legal counsel, but alleged that both monks had “confessed their guilt.” After security officials detained the two monks in March, the authorities did not inform their families of their whereabouts or the legal proceedings against them until August 28—two days prior to sentencing.

According to Tibetan sources, Phuntsog was kicked, beaten and had objects thrown at him by police when the flames had been extinguished, and the intent of the monks had been to rescue and shelter Phuntsog.


2b. Two sentenced (one to death) following the self-immolation of Phuntsog in Ngaba (March 2011)

Lobsang Kunchok

Lobsang Kunchok, sentenced to death for alleged ‘intentional homicide.’

courtroom

Lobsang Tsering (left), and Lobsang Kunchok in court.

NAMES
Lobsang Kunchok (Luosang Gongqu, 洛桑贡曲)
Lobsang Tsering (Luosang Cairang, 洛桑 才让)

SENTENCES
Lobsang Kunchok, Death penalty, suspended for two years, January 31, 2013
Lobsang Tsering, 10 years, January 31, 2013

LOCATION
Ngaba County town, Ngaba prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Phuntsog (Pun Cuo, 彭措)
Date: March 16, 2011
Location: Ngaba
ICT report:Monk immolates himself; major protests at Tibetan monastery violently suppressed,” March 16, 2011

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Fellow monks at Kirti monastery

In January, 2013, two more Tibetan monks from Kirti monastery were convicted of ‘intentional homicide’ for ‘inciting and coercing eight people to self-immolate, resulting in three deaths, according to the state media. The state media acknowledged that five of the people that the monks were accused of ‘inciting’ had not actually self-immolated “after wilfully abandoning their plans or after police intervened.” (Xinhua, January 31, 2013). The official media was apparently referring to the self-immolation of Phuntsog on March 16, 2011, according to Tibetan sources, and possibly other self-immolations.

As a result, Tibetan monk Lobsang Kunchok was given a death sentence suspended for two years (which is normally converted to life), and his nephew Lobsang Tsering was sentenced to ten years.

They were the first cases of Tibetans to be prosecuted for “intentional homicide” in connection with self-immolations following the publication of the ‘opinion’ in the Gansu newspaper in December 2012. The trials were accompanied by elaborate propaganda efforts, with news of the alleged conspiracy was covered in the official press and state television. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei told journalists: “We hope through the sentencing of these cases, the international community will be able to clearly see the evil and malicious methods used by the Dalai clique in the self-immolations and condemn their crimes.”[3]

State media coverage did not indicate any evidence for the charge of ‘intentional homicide.’ The verdict caused great distress among Tibetans in the area. At the time of their sentencing, a Tibetan in exile who is from the region and had spoken to local Tibetans told ICT: “Lobsang Kunchok and his nephew are good men and respected in their local communities, and they are likely to have responded to requests to help families who were suffering. This sentencing to death can only make the situation worse and risk further self-immolations happening in Ngaba.”

The priorities of the authorities in seeking to suppress information reaching the outside world, and other areas of Tibet, are evident in the further charges imposed on Lobsang Kunchok for sending out information regarding self-immolations, which it said was “used by some overseas media as a basis for creating secessionist propaganda.” The police had initially accused both Lobsang Kunchok and Lobsang Tsering of carrying out the instructions of the Dalai Lama and his followers, according to Tibetans in exile.

The sentences were handed down by the Intermediate People’s Court of Ngaba prefecture. On January 28, Xinhua had acknowledged that the two Tibetans were not represented by their own lawyers. Despite an assertion by a judge who told the Global Times that: “authorities obtained sufficient evidence showing it [the alleged crimes] had been instructed by ”forces from abroad” no evidence was presented to justify the sentencing.

According to the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, “According to PRC law, the trials of the monks on charges of ‘intentional homicide’ should not have been heard before a county-level court – instead, the trial should have been heard before the Aba T&QAP Intermediate People’s Court. Article 20(2) of the Criminal Procedure Law states, ‘The Intermediate People’s Courts shall have jurisdiction as courts of first instance over […] ordinary criminal cases punishable by life imprisonment or the death penalty.’ Article 232 of the Criminal Law states, ‘Whoever intentionally commits homicide shall be sentenced to death, life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 10 years; if the circumstances are relatively minor, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 10 years.’ Official media reports have provided no information on why trials on charges punishable by the death penalty or life imprisonment were heard before a county-level court. An additional unusual aspect of the trials is that the county court that reportedly tried the cases was not the county court with jurisdiction over the site where the alleged crimes were committed: Kirti Monastery is in Ngaba, not, county. The Barkham County People’s Court is located in the prefectural capital, along with the Ngaba T&QAP Intermediate People’s Court.”[4]

In a response to a question from the press on August 29, 2011, a U.S. State Department spokesperson said the government was “concerned” by the conviction for “intentional homicide”. The spokesperson also said: “We urge the Chinese government to ensure transparency and to uphold the procedural protections and rights to which Chinese citizens are entitled under China’s Constitution and laws and under international standards.”


Details on the self-immolation of Phuntsog relevant to cases of “intentional homicide”

Phuntsog’s was the second self-immolation in Tibet since Tapey in February 2009, beginning a wave of self-immolations by monks in Ngaba.[5]

According to information pieced together by ICT, on March 16, 2011, Phuntsog took some kerosene from a motorbike and drank it. He walked out of the monastery and set himself on fire, and he began to run towards the street where Tapey self-immolated, which has been known since then by Tibetans as “Heroes Street.” While ablaze, he managed to shout, calling for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, and for freedom and independence (rangzen) for Tibet. One report cited by the Kirti monks in exile said that Phuntsog shouted: “May His Holiness the Dalai Lama live for 10,000 years!” He fell on the ground twice, and picked himself up both times, attempting to run again.

Within minutes, given the intense presence of Chinese paramilitary in the town, security personnel extinguished the flames and were seen beating Phuntsog, according to reports from Kirti monks in exile, who spoke to eyewitnesses.

The state media broadcast states that Phuntsog died because Tibetans refused to talk him to a hospital for treatment. The truth is more complex.

The first instincts of some of those who witnessed the self-immolation and subsequent beating were to get Phuntsog away from the paramilitary police and back to the monastery. Kirti monks in exile Kanyag Tsering and Lobsang Yeshe said: “When Phuntsog was taken back to the monastery, there was little hope of his surviving, but as he was not yet dead, there was still a chance. Without government permission, they knew the hospital would not take him.”

Tibetans have good reason to fear taking injured individuals involved in political protest to a hospital. At times of political unrest or individual actions of dissent, clinics and hospitals in Tibetan areas are known to refuse treatment to those injured or wounded, as was the case in Lhasa in March, 2008. Sometimes, injured protestors can be detained instead of given medical attention at hospitals. A Tibetan in Lhasa in March, 2008, said: “On the second day of the protests, even Tibetans who had bruises were treated as suspects and detained. So Tibetans who were injured had no choice but to wait for death.”[6] In such situations, individuals with medical knowledge have provided some emergency first aid for the wounded, where possible, but it is generally not regarded as safe to go to government-run hospitals for those who have participated in political protests, have self-immolated, or even those who have witnessed protests without participating.

Clandestinely-shot footage released after the event and broadcast by Voice of America Tibetan Service showed a scarred and burnt Phuntsog in the front seat of a car before he was taken back to Kirti.[7] The young monk was in agonizing pain. He was taken to someone’s house.

At first Phuntsog could not speak, but then he said in a weak voice that he felt thirsty and felt as if he was burning inside. He took a sip of water but gasped in pain, saying that drinking water made it worse, as if his insides were boiling.[8] He told those around him that there was nothing anyone could do as he was burning inside, and that he expected death to come soon. He added that because of the Dalai Lama’s blessing he was ready for death. He said: “If I cannot see my parents and my brothers before I die then they should not worry or suffer, I wish my family to be happy with what I was able to do. My last message for the six million Tibetans is to unite, like malas [prayer beads] on a string, linking every Tibetan. Tibetan people should work together for the cause as much as they can.”

Phuntsog recited many prayers to the Dalai Lama, asking to be able to die soon, as he was ready for death.

“When we hear that a Tibetan in Tibet has self-immolated, we pray that they will die, as they have already prepared for death, and if they survive, they will undergo even more suffering,” a Tibetan exile in Dharamsala told ICT.

In the meantime, monk officials from Kirti were negotiating with the Chinese authorities to admit Phuntsog to a hospital.

According to the same sources, protests then broke out against the Chinese authorities involving hundreds of monks and laypeople. After an attempted peaceful march from the monastery, police broke up the protests, detaining an unknown number of monks and beating Tibetans involved.

Early on the evening of March 16, a large group of Kirti monks marched to the main entrance of the monastery to demand the release of those arrested that day, according to Kirti monks in exile in Dharamsala, India. They were met at the gates by a large group of laypeople who pleaded with them not to endanger themselves by going any further, and the head of Kirti’s Democratic Management Committee also intervened, asking local officials to release detained monks in order to defuse the tension. The Kirti monks then withdrew inside the monastic compound and began to recite prayers and light butter-lamps, saying that they would not move until those detained were released. Late that night, seven monks were released and driven back to the monastery, and the monastery officials called upon the protesting monks to withdraw, which they did. One of the released monks, Tashi, had a serious head wound from being struck with a steel club.

Some Tibetans detained on that day were not released until later. Among the laypeople detained on March 16 was a young woman called Tsering Kyi, mother of two young daughters. Tsering Kyi’s husband is a well-known editor and writer, Kesang Jinpa, who was detained on July 19, 2010, and is serving a three-year prison sentence.[9] Tsering Kyi – whose three one-year old children were left on their own when she was taken by police – was beaten severely in detention, her hair was cut off, and she was released two days later.[10]

It was the beginning of an intense lockdown at Kirti and Ngaba, when Tibetans had already been under almost unbearable pressure from the level of securitization in the area.

Phuntsog died in the hospital at around 3 am on March 17, around ten hours after his self-immolation.

The Chinese state media reported his death on March 17, giving his age as 16, implying immaturity, and also saying that he had epilepsy, as if to infer he was not in full control of his actions.[11] The report not only gave misleading information about Phuntsog’s identity, but also claimed: “Shortly after he set himself on fire, a policeman on patrol found him, put out the flames and rushed him to a nearby hospital…But a group of monks from the Kirti Monastery forcibly took him out of the hospital later in the afternoon and hid him inside the monastery, regardless of his injuries.”

This official announcement presaged the arrests that were to follow and the sentencing of Tibetans for “intentional homicide.”


3. Detentions and fear for disappearance, one named, following self-immolation of Tsewang Norbu in Kardze (August 2011)

NAME
Rinchen Dargye (Renqing Daji, 任青达吉)

DETENTION
Detained September 10, 2011, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Tawu, Kardze prefecture, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tsewang Norbu (Caiwang Luobu, 才旺罗布)
Date: August 15, 2011
Location: Kardze
ICT report:Troops surround monastery as Tibetan monk dies after setting himself on fire and calling for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet,” August 16, 2011

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Accused of interfering with police work on self-immolation

A number of monks and local people were detained following the self-immolation of Tibetan monk, Tsewang Norbu, 29, who died on August 15, 2011. In the immediate crackdown, troops were also deployed in the vicinity of Tsewang Norbu’s monastery. Due to tight restrictions in the area, information is only known about one of the detainees, a man called Rinchen Dargye, 41, who was detained on September 10, 2011. According to Tibetan sources in exile, he was charged with disturbing the police while the authorities were taking the body away following the self-immolation. Rinchen Dargye, was born in Lowa township, Tawu county, Kardze prefecture, Sichuan province. He owns a shop in Tawu, and has a wife and two daughters. Tibetan sources believe he may still be in detention but this could not be confirmed.


4. Ten sentenced following the self-immolation of Damchoe Sangpo in Tsonub (February 2012)

Kalsang Gyatso, Khedrup Gyatso, Sangay Gyatso

Kalsang Gyatso, Khedrup Gyatso, Sangay Gyatso

NAMES
Khedrup Gyatso (Kaizhu Jiacuo, 凯珠加措)
Sangay Gyatso (Sangjie Jiacuo, 桑杰加措)
Kalsang Gyatso (Gesang Jiacuo, 格桑加措)
Kunchok Gyatso (Gongqu Jiacuo, 贡曲 加错)
Sherab Gyatso (Xi re Jiacuo, 西热 加措)
Jamyang Woeser (Jiayang Weise, 嘉央 唯色)
Damcho Tseltrim (Danqu Cicheng, 旦曲 次成)
Kalsang Dakpa (Gesang Zhaba, 格桑 扎坝)
Dorje (Da ji, 达吉)
Damcho (Danqu, 旦曲)

SENTENCES
Khedrup Gyatso, 10 years, June 19, 2012
Sangay Gaytso, nine years, June 19, 2012
Kalsang Gyatso, eight years, June 19, 2012
Kunchok Gyatso, one year, nine months, date not known
Sherab Gyatso, one year six months, date not known
Jamyang Woeser, three years, date not known
Damcho Tsultrim, two years, date not known
Kalsang Dakpa, one year, date not known
Dorje, two years, date not known
Damcho, two years, date not known

LOCATION
Themchen county, Tsonub prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Damchoe Sangpo (Danqu Sangbu, 丹曲桑布)
Date: February 17, 2012
Location: Themchen
ICT report:Tibetans gather in Dzamthang for vigil after self-immolation: Lhasa crackdown deepens in buildup to Tibetan New Year,” February 19, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Fellow monks at monastery (all but Damchoe)

Nine monks from Bongthak monastery in Themchen county, Tsonub prefecture, Qinghai province, and one layman were given sentences following the self-immolation of Damchoe Sangpo, a monk and official at the monastery on February 17, 2012.

Monks Khedrup Gyatso, Sangay Gyatso, Kalsang Gyatso, all in their early forties, Kunchok Gyatso, 27, and Sherab Gyatso, 31, Jamyang Woeser, 23, Damcho Tsultrim, 40, Kalsang Dakpa, 37, Dorje, 29, and lay person, Damcho, 40, were all detained and given sentences. No details about their sentences are known.

Jamyang Woeser, Damcho Tsultrim, Kalsang Dakpa Dorje, and Damcho are serving their sentences in different prisons in Qinghai Province. Kunchok Gyatso, was transferred to a prison in Gormo (Golmud), Qinghai. Sherab Gyatso, was taken to a prison in Darlan Kha (Delingha) County.

Bongthak monk Damchoe Sangpo, aged about 40, was the first monastic official to set fire to himself in the wave of self-immolations across Tibet. He set himself ablaze on February 17, 2012, and died shortly afterwards. He was the chanting master of the monastery and a member of its Democratic Management Committee. “Voice of America” reported that he died after setting himself ablaze after monks were banned from marking a religious ceremony, while other sources reported that he had objected to a rigorous “patriotic education” campaign at his monastery. “Radio Free Asia” cited an India-based senior Tibetan monk named Shingsa as saying “After the Tibetan New Year, which in Qinghai’s Amdo region coincides with the Chinese New Year, Chinese officials banned the [monastery’s] Monlam religious gathering and sent armed security forces there. Damchoe objected to this, and told the Chinese officials that if they didn’t withdraw their troops from the monastery, the monks should not be held responsible for any incident that might follow.”


5. Three detained and fear for disappearance after the self-immolations of Lobsang Kalsang, Lobsang Damchoe in Ngaba (August 2012)

NAMES
Lobsang Sangay (Luosang Sangji, 洛桑 桑吉)
Jamyang Chenko (Jiayang Qinkao, 嘉央秦考)
Lobsang Palden (Luosang Huadan, 洛桑华旦)

DETAINED
August 28 or 29, 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Ngaba, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATIONS

Names: Lobsang Kalsang (Luosang Gesang, 洛桑格桑), Lobsang Damchoe (Luosang Danqu, 洛桑旦曲)
Date: August 27, 2012
Location: Ngaba
ICT report:Two Tibetan teenage relatives self-immolate in Ngaba,” August 28, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATIONS: Close relative (Lobsang Sangay)

Three Tibetans were detained following the self-immolations of Lobsang Kalsang, 18, a Kirti monk, and his relative Lobsang Damchoe, 17, a former monk, in Ngaba county town on August 27, 2012.

Twenty-two year-old monk Lobsang Sangyal, a cousin of one of the self-immolators, was arrested at his residence in Kirti monastery a day after the self-immolation. Lobsang Kalsang’s roommate, Lobsang Palden, was arrested later on the same day as the self-immolation. While charges are not known, it seems they were suspected of involvement with the self-immolation, and it is not known if they are still in prison.

The Chinese authorities also arrested 60 year-old layman Jayang Chenko from his home in from Kanyag village, Totsig township, Ngaba county, on 28 August. According to Kirti monks in exile, Jayang Chenko was suspected of sharing news with people outside Tibet.

On August 28, 2012, Lobsang Kalsang and his relative Lobsang Damchoe were seen walking with flames shooting from their bodies before they collapsed to the ground, according to Kirti monks in exile. Chinese security personnel extinguished the flames and took them initially to the hospital in Ngaba town. They were later moved to the hospital in Barkham, where they reportedly later died.


6. At least three detained and fear for disappearance after self-immolation of Gudrub in Nagchu (October 2012)

NAMES
Tsewang Jermey (Caiwang Jiumei, 才旺久美)
Lubum (Lenben, 楞本)
Kalsang Gyaltsen (Gesang Jiancan, 格桑坚参)

DETAINED
Tsewang Jermey, detained October 4, 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Lubum, detained October 5, 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Kalsang Gyaltsen, detained October 5, 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Nagchu, Tibet Autonomous Region

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Gudrub (Gu Zhu, 古珠)
Date: October 4, 2012
Location: Nagchu
ICT report:Second Tibetan dies in less than a week as self-immolations continue in Tibet,” October 5, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Relatives of the self-immolator

Friends and relatives of a Tibetan writer called Gudrub who self-immolated on October 4, 2012, were detained following his death.

Tsewang Jermey, the uncle of self-immolator Gudrub, was taken away from his family on the same day as the self-immolation, on October 4, 2012. The next day, Gudrub’s younger brother Lubum, Gudrub’s sister, and her husband Kalsang Gyaltsen were arrested. While his sister was released a few days later, the others were held in detention and their current whereabouts is not known to ICT.

Around 30 Tibetans, including friends, were also detained on their way to see Gudrub in the hospital, according to Tibetan exile sources, and it is not known whether any of them were sentenced or remain in prison due to restrictions on information flow in the area. Some Tibetan sources known to ICT said that while most were released, some still remain in prison.

Gudrub, a 43-year old writer from Driru county, set fire to himself and called for freedom in Tibet and for the return of the Dalai Lama. Voice of America Tibetan Service reported that a group of Tibetans transported Gudrub’s body to the hospital, where authorities took him into their custody. A doctor later told the group that Gudrub had died, but authorities would not release his body.[12]


7. Four detained and and fear for disappearance following self-immolation of Sangay Gyatso in Kanlho (October 2012)

NAMES
Tashi Gyatso (Zhaxi Jiacuo, 扎西嘉措)
Jigme Gyatso (Jiumei Jiacuo, 久美嘉措)
Kalsang Gyatso (Gazang Jiacuo, 尕藏嘉措)
Kunchok Gyatso (Gongqu Jiacuo, 贡曲嘉措)

DETENTIONS
Tashi Gyatso, detained November 12, 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Jigme Gyatso, detained December 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Kalsang Gyatso, detained December 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Kunchok Gyatso, detained December 2012, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Tsoe City, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Sangay Gyatso (Sangjie Jiacuo, 桑吉加措)
Date: October 6, 2012
Location: Tsoe
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Sangay Gyatso

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Tashi Gyatso accused of keeping the body of the self-immolator

Four monks from the Dokar Monastery in Tsoe, eastern Tibet, were detained in connection with the self-immolation of Sangay Gyatso, in his late twenties, who set himself on fire on October 6, 2012. According to Tibetan sources in exile, they were detained for looking after Sangay Gyatso’s body and taking pictures.

The four monks were identified as Jigme Gyatso, Kalsang Gyatso, Kunchok Gyatso, and Tashi Gyatso. They were detained either prior to or during a raid on the monastery soon after the self-immolation. Jigme Gyatso is the treasurer of the monastery, while Kalsang Gyatso (no relation) is the accountant.

The whereabouts of the monks is not known to ICT. Local people have approached different levels of government in Gansu in order to appeal on behalf of the monks, but at the time of writing had not received any replies.

Monks at the monastery were interrogated and severe restrictions were placed on the movement of local Tibetans.

Sangay Gyatso, 27, set fire to himself on October 6, 2012, near Kanlho Tsoe Dokar Gelug Monastery, Tsoe, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu Province. Sangay Gyatso was a husband and father of two who came from a nomadic background. His body was taken to his house after the self-immolation following prayers done at the monastery, and a number of Tibetans went to pray for him at his family home. According to various exile reports, family members were offered bribes to say that the self-immolation had not been linked to Chinese policy in Tibet.


8. Five detained and fear for disappearance after the self-immolation of Tamdin Dorje in Kahlho (October 2012)

NAMES
Geden Jamyang (Genden Jiayang, 更登嘉央)
Dorkho Kyab (Duokao Jie, 多考杰)
Choepal Dorjee (Qupei Duojie, 曲培多吉)
Choezin (Quzeng, 曲增)
Lobsang Choepal (Luosang Qupei, 洛桑曲培)

DETENTIONS
Geden Jamyang, disappeared
Dorkho Kyab, disappeared
Choepal Dorjee, disappeared
Choezin, disappeared
Lobsang Choepal, disappeared

LOCATION
Unknown

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tamdin Dorje (Danzheng Duojie, 旦正多杰)
Date: October 13, 2012
Location: Khasag township, Tsoe City, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province
ICT report:Grandfather of Tibetan reincarnate lama dies after self-immolation today,” October 13, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Not referenced

Monk Gedun Jamyang, 42, was detained after he chanted prayers for Tamdin Dorje, the grandfather of an important reincarnate lama, who self-immolated on October 13, 2012. Dorkho Kyab, 47, and his son Choephel, 19, were also detained, allegedly for helping Tamdin Dorje’s family arrange the funeral ceremony. Monk Choezin, 27, and Lobsang Choephel, 27, were detained on December 12, 2012. Their whereabouts is still unknown.

Tamdin Dorje died on October 13, 2012, after setting fire to himself near a monastery in Kanlho Prefecture in Gansu Province. Tibetans gathered to pray for him despite an intense military buildup in the area following the self-immolation. Tamdin Dorje, who was in his early fifties, was from Drong Che village in Khasag township in Kanlho. He was a father of three and the grandfather of the 10-year old boy who is recognized as one of the most important lamas in historic Labrang Tashikyil monastery, Gungthang Rinpoche.


9. Six sentenced following the self-immolation of Dorje Rinchen in Sangchu (October 2012)

courtroom

The sentencing following the self-immolation of Dorje Rinchen, image published in official media.

NAMES
Pema Dhondup (Baima Dongzhi, 白玛东智) (male)
Kalsang Gyatso (Gazang Jiacuo, 尕藏嘉措) (male)
Pema Tso (Baima Cuo, 白玛措) (female)
Lhamo Dhondup(Lamu Dongzhi, 拉姆东智) (male)
Dolkar Gyal (Zhouke Jia, 周克加) (male)
Yangmo Kyi(Yangmu Ji, 阳姆吉)(female)

SENTENCES
Pema Dhondup, 12 years, January 31, 2013
Kalsang Gyatso, 11 years, January 31, 2013
Pema Tso, eight years, January 31, 2013
Lhamo Dhondup, seven years, January 31, 2013
Dolkar Gyal, seven years, January 31, 2013
Yangmo Kyi, three years, January 31, 2013

LOCATION
Sentenced by People’s Intermediate Court Sangchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Dorje Rinchen (Duojie Renqing, 多杰仁青)
Date: October 23, 2012
Location: Labrang, Sangchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province
ICT report:New images from Tibet depict self-immolation of Dorje Rinchen in Labrang today and aftermath,” October 23, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: May have been among crowd seeking to prevent Dorje Rinchen’s body from being taken away

In the second case of Tibetans being convicted for ‘intentional homicide’ following the Gansu ‘opinion’ in December 2012, six people were given sentences ranging from three to 12 years in January, 2013. They followed the self-immolation of Dorje Rinchen in Labrang on October 23, 2012.

The six were sentenced for “obstructing the rescue” of Dorje Rinchen by security forces, with the state media reporting that: “The Sangchu County Court holds that the defendants Pema Dhondup, Kalsang Gyatso, Pema Tso, and Lhamo Dhondup made efforts, assaulted on-duty officers and hindered their rescue of a self-immolator, which thereby constituted the crime of “intentional homicide.” The defendants Dugkar Kyab and Yangmo Kyi created disturbances in public areas, which constituted the crime of creating a disturbance. Pema Dhondup, Kalsang Gyatso, Pema Tso, and Lhamo Dhondup deliberately jointly obstructed a rescue, a joint crime. The court made the verdict in accordance with the facts of the crimes of which the six have been accused, the nature and specifics of the harm done to society, and after considering the views of both the prosecutors and the defense lawyers.”[13]

Speaking to press in India, the head of Kirti monastery in exile, Kirti Rinpoche, said that the convictions were “done in the dark without following the due process of law.”[14]

Full details of the circumstances in the aftermath of Dorje Rinchen’s self-immolation are not known; those sentenced may have been among the crowd apparently seeking to prevent Dorje Rinchen from being dragged away by armed troops following his self-immolation. Tibetan self-immolators have been seen to have been beaten, kicked, and even shot by security personnel on the scene. According to Tibetan religious belief, it is important for Tibetans that someone close to death, or who has died, remains undisturbed so that appropriate prayers can be chanted to mark the passing of the individual.

Images sent from Tibet showed armed paramilitary troops converging upon the body of Dorje Rinchen, while local people gather around and appear to be trying to shield or protect him, wreathed in smoke from his burning body. Further images obtained from Labrang that day depict streams of monks and laypeople walking to his home to carry out the traditional rituals.[15]


10. One disappeared following self-immolation of Lhamo Tseten in Sangchu (October 2012)

NAME
Phagpa Kyab (Puba Jie, 普坝杰)

DETENTION
December 4, 2012, whereabouts unknown

LOCATION
Amchok Township in Sangchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Lhamo Tseten (Lamao Caidan, 拉毛才旦)
Date: October 26, 2012
Location: Amchok Township
ICT report:Self-immolation of Tibetan nomad in twenties in restive area of Amchok,” October 26, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Not referenced

Phagpa Kyab, 47, who was detained by Kanlho police on December 4, 2012, in his village for interrogation in Amchok Township, Sangchu County, Kanlho Prefecture, Gansu Province.

Authorities had accused Phagpa Kyab of providing assistance to Lhamo Tseten, who self-immolated near Bora monastery in Amchok to protest against Chinese rule on October 26, 2012.

Elderly people from the local community went to the authorities a few times to ask about Phagpa Kyab’s whereabouts and safety, but were only told that he had helped Lhamo Tseten to self-immolate. No further information is known about his whereabouts.

Lhamo Tseten was in his late twenties, and left a wife and two children, aged 10 and seven. He was seen running along the road in flames, and calling for the Dalai Lama to come home to Tibet. According to Tibetan sources in exile, Lhamo Tseten died at the scene.[16] The same sources said that police tried to put out the flames, and a local man took off his shirt and tried to fling it over Lhamo Tseten but the blaze was too strong. There was some tension between security personnel on the scene and local Tibetans as Tibetans sought to take the body to Bora monastery.


11. Seven sentenced, five detained (at least two released) following nine self-immolations in Malho (November 2012)

Phagpa

Phagpa stands trial at the Intermediate People’s Court of the Malho (Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, February 8, 2013. Image from the
Chinese state media.

NAMES
Aku Gyatak (Gyadehor, A Ke Jia de, 阿克,嘉德)
Dorje (Dao Ji, 道吉)
Lhamo
Tsundue Choeden (Zongzhou Qudan, 宗周曲旦)
Kunchok Sonam(Gongqu Suonan, 贡曲索南)
Unidentified male
Phagba (Puba, 普坝)
Kalsang Sonam (Gazang Suonan, 尕藏索南)
Soebum (Suoben, 索本)
Dakpa Gyatso (Zhihua Jiacuo, 智华嘉措)
Jigme Tenzin (Jiumei Danzeng, 久美丹增)
Dolma Kyab (Zhuoma Jia, 卓玛加)

SENTENCES
Aku Gyatak, four years, February 8, 2013
Dorje, two years, six months, early February 2013
Lhamo, two years, date not known
Tsundue Choeden two years, date not known
Kunchok Sonam, sentenced to unknown term
Unidentified male, two years, date not known
Phagpa, 13 years, February 8, 2013

DETENTIONS
Kalsang Sonam, detained in November 2012
Soebum, detained in November 2012
Dakpa Gyatso, detained and released
Jigme Tenzin, detained and released
Dolma Kyab, detained

LOCATION
Rebkong county, Malho Prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATIONS

Names and Dates: Dorje Lhundup (November 4, 2012), Tamding Tso (November 7, 2012), Jinpa Gyatso (November 8, 2012), Nyangchag Bum, (November 12, 2012), Nyangkar Tashi (November 12, 2012), Tenzin Dolma (November 15, 2012), Khabum Gyal (November 15, 2012), Chagmo Kyi (November 17, 2012), Lhubum Gyal (November 22, 2012)
Location: Various places in Rebkong county
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATIONS: See below for details

Comments

There were nine self-immolations in Rebkong County, Malho Prefecture, Qinghai province, in an 18-day period in November 2012. In response, local Tibetans gathered to pay respects, including candle-light vigils and prayers, to the deceased. Thousands of Tibetan students in Rebkong had gathered at the cremation of Jinpa Gyatso, who self-immolated and died the day before, November 8, 2012, in front of Rongpo monastery. On November 9, 2012, Tibetan students at the Qinghai Nationalities University held a candlelight vigil and said mantras for Tibetans who had self-immolated.

Two men, Phagba, 27, and Dolma Kyab, were detained in Rebkong in November 2012. Phagpa was sentenced by the Intermediate People’s Court of Malho Prefecture for ‘intentional homicide,’ after he allegedly persuaded Dolma Kyab to set fire to himself. Dolma Kyab was alleged to have planned to self-immolate.

State media reported in detail about the cases of Phagpa and Dolma Kyab in various reports following news that 70 ‘suspects’ connected to self-immolations in Malho prefecture had been arrested. The report stated that the Qinghai police had “successfully cracked the case of a series of self-immolation incidents” across Malho, and that “70 suspects have been arrested for various criminal offenses, and criminal coercive measures have been applied to 52 people, 12 of whom have been arrested.”[17]

State media reported that the court found that Phagpa “indoctrinated ‘Drolma Je’ [Dolma Kyab]” a monk at the Dowa Monastery of Tongren county in Huangnan prefecture, from June to July 2012, convincing him to self-immolate to achieve “freedom and independence for the Tibetan ethnic group.” The same official report said that Phagpa told Drolma Je that “self-immolators sacrificed their lives for Tibetan freedom and independence and are ethnic heroes” and that “self-immolating is good for the freedom and independence of the Tibetan ethnic group.” The same report stated that on November 18, 2012, “Drolma Je checked into a local hotel, bringing gas and other materials in preparation for the self-immolation.

However, his sister-in-law learned of his attempt and dissuaded him from doing so, the court found.”[18]

The article said that Phagpa possessed photographs of Tibetans in the exile government in Dharamsala, as well as “books and video clips with inflammatory content.” The term “inflammatory content” may be a reference to pictures or text about the Dalai Lama. “His efforts to spread ideas related to ‘Tibetan independence’ were intended to incite a split of the state and undermine national unity, thus constituting crime of inciting secession, the court found.”[19]

He was also accused of organizing more than 50 students and nomads to demonstrate peacefully on November 8, 2012, and of propagating “ideas related to “Tibetan independence” during visits paid to the homes of local self-immolators in November 2012. He also gave the self-immolators’ relatives money, as well as portraits of members of the ‘Tibetan government-in-exile.’”

A Tibetan nomad in his sixties, Aku Gyatak, was sentenced to four years because he “spread opinions related to ‘Tibet independence’ when he brought cash and other goods to console families of self-immolators in November 2012.” The same report said that: “His acts constituted the crime of inciting a split of the state, the court said.”[20]

Aku Gyatak, 63, from a village in Dowa Township in Rebkong, had visited the homes of Tibetans who had self-immolated to give money and gifts, as a sign of respect for the bereaved. According to Tibetan sources, he appears to have taken responsibility for organizing peaceful demonstrations after self-immolations in the area, perhaps to protect other younger people from imprisonment. The sources also said that he made no secret of the fact that he had gone to console bereaved family members and lit butter-lamps in memory of the deceased, according to Tibetan custom.

Soebum, 18, a layman from Kharkya Village in Dowa Township, was detained in November 2012, and it is not known whether he has been released since then.

An unidentified Tibetan youth, 17, who is a son of the Sameytsang family from Dong-gye Village in Dowa was sentenced to two years’ in prison.

Two Tibetan monks, Dakpa Gyatso from Khar-kya Village and Jigme Tenzin from Gyadu Village, both in Dowa township, were detained and released after nine months’ in police custody on suspicion that they raised “separatist” slogans during protests in Dowa and had connections with self-immolations.

Dorje, a layman and student of Rebkong county middle school, and from a village in Dowa township, was charged with ‘inciting self-immolation’ and involvement in separatism, and sentenced to two years and six months in prison in early February 2013, by the Xining City Intermediate Court. According to Tibetan sources, he has not been allowed to receive visitors. There is no evidence that he played a role in any self-immolation, according to Tibetan sources. According to Radio Free Asia and Phayul, Dorje was specifically accused of shouting slogans calling for Tibet’s independence and founding a Tibetan cultural preservation group.

Lhamo, 20, a layman from the same village as Dorje in Dowa, was sentenced to two years in prison. (Date not known)

Tsundue Choedhen, 19, a monk from Rongwo Monastery was sentenced to two years imprisonment. He and Kalsang Sonam, also a monk, were detained on November 16, 2012, on charges of inciting a friend to self-immolate, according to the Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy. There is no information on their whereabouts.


12. One sentenced following four self-immolations in Malho (November-December 2012)

NAME
Jamyang Tseten (Jiayang Caidan, 嘉央才旦), of Qinghai Communications Technical College

SENTENCE
Four years in prison

LOCATION
Tsekhog county, Malho prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATIONS

Names and Dates: Sangdag Tsering (Sangde Cairang, 桑德才让, November 17, 2012), Tamdrin Dorje (Danzheng Duojie, 旦正多杰, November 23, 2012), Sangay Dolma (Sangjie Zhuoma, 桑杰卓玛, November 25), Wangchen Kyi (Xiangqian Ji, 项欠吉, December 9, 2012)
Location: Tsekhog
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATIONS: Unknown

Jamyang Tseten, 25, who was born in Dokarmo Township in Tsekhog (Chinese: Zeku) in Malho (Chinese: Huangnan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, was a student at one of the top universities in northwest PRC. He was arrested in Tsekhog county town in November or December 2012, and according to Tibetan sources was accused of “involvement” in self-immolations that have occurred in Tsekhog as well as unspecified ‘separatist’ activity. He is serving four years imprisonment in a prison in Xining city, Qinghai; the date of his sentencing and further details are not known.

There were four self-immolations in Tsekhog in November and December 2013. All four Tibetans died: Sangdag Tsering, 24 (male), who had frequently spoken about the need for the Dalai Lama to be in Tibet; Sangay Dolma, a young nun; Tamdrin Dorje, 29 (male), who could be seen putting his hands together in prayer, shouting long life to the Dalai Lama while ablaze; and Wangchen Kyi, 17 (female), a student, who called for the long life of the Dalai Lama and of the Tibetan people as she set herself ablaze.


13. Two sentenced following the self-immolation of Wangchen Norbu in Tsoshar (November 2012)

NAMES
Tsundue (Zong Zhou, 宗周)
Gedun Tsultrim (Gengdeng Cicheng, 更登 次成)

SENTENCES
Tsundue, three years
Gedun Tsultrim, three years

LOCATION
Kangtsa township, Yadzi county, Tsoshar prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Wangchen Norbu (Hangqian Naori, 航欠闹日)
Date: November 19, 2012
Location: Kangtsa
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Wangchen Norbu

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: The two men were on their way to pay their respects and say prayers at the home of Wangchen Norbu

Two monks, Tsundue and Gedun Tsultrim, were sentenced to three years each in prison after they held prayers for a Tibetan, Wangchen Norbu, who set fire to himself and died. Tsundue, who is in his late twenties, and 30-year old Gedun Tsultrim, were detained on November 21, 2012, as they were on their way to pay their respects and say prayers at the home of Other monks and laypeople were also blocked from going to Wangchen Norbu’s house, and some of them prayed by the road where they were stopped by police and officials.

It was the first known case of monks being sentenced for praying, or attempting to pray, for a Tibetan who has self-immolated. It is possible that the monks took responsibility for organizing the prayers in order to protect the broader community.

Both lay people and monks who had been attempting to walk to Wangchen Norbu’s home to carry out traditional prayers were subject to harassment and intimidation afterwards. The sentencing of Tsundue and Gedun Tsultrim is likely to have been intended to send a warning to others. According to one Tibetan who spoke to sources, it also appears to indicate that they took responsibility for organizing the prayers in order to protect others.

According to the same exile Tibetan sources, Tsundue, in his late twenties, was accused of being the organizer of a prayer ceremony following the self-immolation at his monastery, Bido in the neighboring township to Kangtsa in Xunhua (Do-wi) Salar Autonomous County in Tsoshar prefecture, Qinghai province. He was also accused of being one of the main monks intending to lead the traditional prayers at Wangchen Norbu’s home two days after he self-immolated. Gedun Tsultrim, who was a chant-master in charge of prayers at a monk at Bido monastery in Bido township, was accused of collecting offerings made by monks for Wangchen Norbu’s family, and for organizing monks to go to his family home for prayers.

Monks and local people sought their release but failed to convince the local authorities, and the monks’ families did not receive any documentation clarifying the sentences. The two monks are believed to be held in Xining and it is not known if families have been given permission to visit them.

Eventually, the authority announced that Gendun Tseltrim was sentenced to three years imprisonment. Since then, the two monks were transferred to a prison in Xining and the authorities have not given permission to the families and relatives to visit them.

Wangchen Norbu, in his mid-twenties, had died after self-immolating two days earlier near Kangtsa Gaden Choepheling monastery in Kangtsa in Xunhua County in Tsoshar prefecture, Qinghai province.

Sources in the region say that Wangchen Norbu set himself ablaze and shouted slogans calling for the return of the Dalai Lama to Tibet, release of the Panchen Lama and freedom for Tibet. Kangtsa is adjacent to the hometown of the late 10th Panchen Lama in Tsoshar, Xunhua county, Qinghai.


14. Five detained and fear for disappearance following self-immolation of Sangay Dolma in Malho (November 2012)

NAMES
Rigshel (Rigche, Ri Jiu, 日玖)
Chakthar (Ji Tai, 吉太)
Shawo (Xia Wu, 夏吾)
Tsundue (Zong Zhou, 宗周)
Chodon (QuDan, 曲旦)

DETENTIONS
Rigshel, detained date, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Chakthar, detained date, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Shawo, detained date, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Tsundue, detained date, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Chodon, detained date, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Malho prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Sangay Dolma (Sangjie Zhuoma, 桑杰卓玛)
Date: November 25, 2012
Location: Dokarmo town, Tsekhog county, Malho
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Sangay Dolma

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Rigshel is the sister of the self-immolator

Rigshel is a Tibetan Buddhist nun who is the sister of a nun in her twenties, Sangay Dolma, who self-immolated and died on November 25, 2012, in front of the Chinese government office in Dokarmo town of Tsekhog county in Malho prefecture in Qinghai province.

Rigshel (who is known by only one name) was detained together with four other Tibetans, Chakthar (吉太, age 47), Shawo (夏吾, aged 30), Tsundue (宗周, monk, age 49) and Chodon (曲旦, a nun, age not known). They were detained soon after the self-immolation, and at the time of writing their current whereabouts is not known.


15. Three sentenced and five feared to have been disappeared following the self-immolation of Tsering Namgyal in Kanlho (November 2012)

NAMES
Kalsang Samdup (Gesang Sanzhou, 格桑三周)
Nyima (Nima, 尼玛)
Lhamo Dorjee (Lamou Duojie, 拉姆多杰)
Dorjee Dhondup (Doujie Dongzhi, 多杰东知)
Kelsang Kyap (Gazang Jie, 尕藏杰)
Kelsang Sonam (Gazang Sounan, 尕藏索南)
Kelsang Namden (Gazang Nandan, 尕藏南旦)
Sonam Kyi (Sounan Ji, 索南吉)

SENTENCES
Lhamo Dorje, 15 years
Kelsang Sonam, 11 years
Kalsang Tsezung Kyab (or Kalsang Kyab), 10 years

DISAPPEARENCES
Kalsang Samdup
Nyima
Dorje Dhondup
Kalsang Namden
Sonam Kyi

LOCATION
Lotsa village, Samtsa township, Luchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tsering Namgyal (Cairang Nanjie, 才让南杰)
Date: November 29, 2012
Location: Luchu
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Tsering Namgyal

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Were from the same village

According to Gansu Daily newspaper, Lhamo Dorje was sentenced on February 28, 2013, to 15 years imprisonment, Kalsang Sonam to 11 years, and Tsezang Kyab (assumed to be Kalsang Kyab) to 10 years in prison under the charge of “intentional homicide.” Authorities said that Tsering Namgyal’s death was directly attributable to the actions of the three Tibetans.[21]

The three sentenced, along with Kalsang Samdup, Nyima, Dorje Dhondup, Kalsang Namden and Sonam Kyi were detained by the local authorities at different times. They are all from the same village as Tsering Namgyal, Lotsa in Samtsa township, Luchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province. Kalsang Namden is the younger brother of Tsering Namgyal’s widow. It is not known whether those detained have been released or remain in detention.

Tsering Namgyal, 31, a father of two, set fire to himself and died on November 29, 2012, in Luchu.


16. One sentenced and four feared to have been disappeared following the self-immolation of Sungdue Kyab in Kanlho (December 2012)

Gendun Gyatso

Gendun Gyatso

announcement

Copy of the announcement regarding Gedun Gyatso’s sentencing issued by the Sangchu County People’s Court on 6 December 2013. The document, published by the Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy, states that “Gedun Gyatso’s sentencing will take place at 9 am on 10 December 2013.”

NAMES
Gendun Gyatso (Gengdeng Jiacuo, 更登嘉措)
Lobsang Pakpa (Luosang Puba, 洛桑普巴)
Jamyang Soepa (Jiayang Suoba, 嘉央索坝)
Jamyang Lodoe (Jiayang Luozhou, 嘉央罗周)
Jamyang Gyatso (Jiayang Jiacuo, 嘉央嘉措)

SENTENCE
Gendun Gyatso, six years

DISAPPEARANCES
Lobsang Pakpa
Jamyang Soepa
Jamyang Lodoe
Jamyang Gyatso

LOCATION
Bora, Sangchu county, Kanlho prefecture, Gansu province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Sungdue Kyab (Songdi Jia, 松底嘉)
Date: December 2, 2012
Location: Bora
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Sungdue Kyab

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: All were fellow monks at Bora monastery

In the morning of December 3, 2012, a day after the self-immolation of Sungdue Kyab, armed police from Bora and Amchok Township came to Bora monastery and arrested five monks. In early 2013, Sangchu County Intermediate People’s Court sentenced Gedun Gyatso to six years imprisonment under the charge of ‘intentional homicide’, according to Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy (TCHRD) and exile Tibetan sources, and located him to a prison in Lanzhou city.

TCHRD reported a source with contacts in the area saying: “He [Gedun Gyatso] was falsely accused of “intentional homicide.” In fact, the two policemen who were at the site of Sungdue Kyab’s self-immolation claimed that Gedun Gyatso tried to stop them from extinguishing the fire. But he has not accepted the charge and the sentence was passed in spite of it.”[22] No official confirmation of the charge of intentional homicide is available.

The whereabouts of the four monks (Lobsang Pakpa, Jamyang Soepa, Jamyang Lodoe, Jamyang Gyatso) who were detained together with Gedun Gyatso is not known. Some relatives went to the county and prefectural level authorities to ask about them but received no information.

Sungdue Kyab, 17, set fire to himself along the road to Bora monatery, in Sangchu County, on December 2, 2012, according to Tibetans in exile in contact with Tibetans in Tibet.

Local Tibetans and monks from Bora monastery gathered at the site of the protest, when the scene became very tense, according to the same Tibetan sources. Sungdue Kyab survived the self-immolation and it is not known whether he is still alive. His family was allowed to see him once through the window of a hospital in Lanzhou; the Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy reported that doctors warned they would have to amputate both his legs.[23]


17. Three sentenced following the self-immolation of Lobsang Geleg in Golog (December 2012)

NAMES
Dotruk (Duozhou, 多周)
Ugyen (Dortruk Ugyen, Ao jin, 奥金)
Chokyab (Qu Jie, 曲杰)

SENTENCES
Dotruk, ten years, May 2013
Ugyen, one year, nine months, date of detention unknown
Chokyab, one year, six months, date of detention unknown

LOCATION
Unknown

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Lobsang Geleg (Lousang Gele, 洛桑格勒)
Date: December 3, 201
Location: Pema county, Golog prefecture, Qinghai
ICT report: ICT fact sheet on self-immolations, Lobsang Geleg

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Unknown

Three men were sentenced after a number of Tibetans were accused of trying to take the body of Lobsang Geleg after his self-immolation on December 3, 2012. Dotruk, in his mid fifties, was sentenced to ten years in prison in May 2013, Ugyen to one year and nine months, and Chokyab to one year and six months imprisonment.

Lobsang Geleg, aged 29, a monk at Pema Gonka Dagtroe Ling monastery, set fire to himself on December 3, 2012, at the main intersection in Pema county town and died at the scene. Before his death Lobsang Geleg shouted slogans and attempted to join his hands in prayer, according to a local Tibetan who spoke with Tibetans in exile. State security personnel attempted to remove Lobsang Geleg’s body, but were stopped by a gathering of local Tibetans, who took the body to the local monastery for prayers.


18. One detained (and released) after the self-immolation of Wangchen Kyi in Malho (December 2012)

NAME
Tamding Tsering (Danzheng Cairang, 旦正才让)

SENTENCE
Six years, April 9, 2010

DETENTION
Approximately 1.5 years (released July 29, 2013)

LOCATION
Tsekhog, Malho prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Wangchen Kyi (Xiangqian Ji, 项欠吉)
Date: December 9, 2012
Location: Tsekhog
ICT report:Three Tibetans self-immolate in two days during important Buddhist anniversary: images of troops in Lhasa as Tibetans pray,” December 10, 2012

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Unknown

According to Tibetan sources, Tamding Tsering was detained on charges related to ‘inciting self-immolation,’ after Wangchen Kyi’s self-immolation, although exact details are not known. He was released from prison in Xining, the capital of Qinghai province, on July 29, 2013 after approximately one and a half years in detention.

Following his release, Tamding Tsering returned to his home area in Tsekhog, Malho prefecture, Qinghai province. There are concerns for his current health condition resulting from his imprisonment, where he received inadequate medical attention for torture and abuse.

Seventeen year old Wangchen Kyi set fire to herself on December 9, 2012, in a nomadic area of Tsekhog and may have done so intentionally because she believed that her corpse would not be returned to her family if she had self-immolated outside a government building. Wangchen Kyi called for the long life of the Dalai Lama and of the Tibetan people as she set herself ablaze, according to reports from exile Tibetans in contact with people in the area.[24]


19. Three sentenced following self-immolation of Tsering Phuntsok in Ngaba (January 2013)

Norbu Dorje and Gergon

Norbu Dorje (left) and Gergon (right)

NAMES
Gergon (Gegong, 格贡)
Norbu Dorje (Nuobu Duojie, 诺布 多杰)
Sonam Yaphel (Suonan Yapei, 索南 雅培)

SENTENCES
Gergon, four years, July 2013
Norbu Dorje, four years, July 2013
Sonam Yaphel, five years, July 2013

LOCATION
Kakhok county, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tsering Phuntsok(Zhuque, 珠却)
Date: January 18, 2013
Location: Drachen village, Kakhok country, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province
ICT report:Chinese state media blame ‘Dalai Clique’ and announce detentions in aggressive security drive against Tibetan self-immolators,” January 18, 2013

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Gergon and Sonam Yaphel accused of blocking police; Norbu Dorje accused of inciting the self-immolation

Three Tibetans were sentenced to imprisonment, accused of incitement or obstructing police, following the self-immolation of Tsering Phuntsok (also known as Drupchak) on January 18, 2013, according to Tibetan exile sources.

Gergon and Sonam Yaphel were sentenced to four years and Norbu Dorje to five years. All of them were detained in Mianyang prison. According to Tibetan exile sources, they were not allowed to receive visitors, although they may now have been given permission.

Gergon and Sonam Yaphel were sentenced for trying to block the police from extinguishing the fire, and Norbu was accused of inciting the self-immolation.

Tsering Phuntsok (also known as Drupchak), a man in his twenties, set himself on fire in Drachen village, Kakhok county, Ngaba Prefecture, Sichuan province.He passed away at the scene and his body was taken away by Chinese police, according to Tibetan exile sources. He was survived by his wife and two children.


20. Three sentenced following self-immolation of Phagmo Dundrup in Tsoshar (February 2013)

NAMES
Jigme Thamkey (Jiumei Tankai, 久美 坦凯)
Kalsang Dhondup (Gesang Dongzhu, 格桑东珠)
Lobsang (Luo sang, 洛桑)

SENTENCES
Jigme Thamkey, five years, March 18, 2013
Kalsang Dhondup, six years, March 18, 2013
Lobsang, four years, March 18, 2013

LOCATION
Bayan county, Tsoshar prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Phagmo Dundrup (Pengmuo Dongzhu, 鹏莫东珠)
Date: February 24, 2013
Location: Shachang Monastery, Bayan county
ICT report:Two Tibetans self-immolate at monasteries during prayer ceremonies in Amdo,” February 25, 2013

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Unclear

Jigme Thamkey was sentenced to five years, Kalsang Dhondup to six years and Lobsang were sentenced to four years imprisonment on March 18, 2013. All three are from Bayan county, Tsoshar prefecture, Qinghai province. They each ‘disappeared’ at different times and later it was announced that they had been sentenced. Local Tibetans are not clear of the exact charges, but they may involve accusations that the Tibetans circulated photographs, possibly of the self-immolation, although this could not be confirmed.

Phagmo Dundrup, a Tibetan farmer in his early twenties, set himself on fire on February 24, 2013, in the monks’ debating area of Chachung monastery in Tsoshar, during an evening when hundreds of Tibetans were present at the monastery for a traditional prayer ceremony and presentation of butter-lamps of the Buddha and other deities. According to information from Tibetan sources in exile, monks tried to extinguish the flames after Phagmo Dondrup set himself ablaze. The monks took him to the hospital but he passed away in a hospital in Xining, the capital of Qinghai.


21. At least seven Tibetans detained and feared to have been disappeared after the self-immolation of Kunchok Sonam in Ngaba (July 20, 2013)

NAMES
Tenzin Gyatso (Danzeng Jiacuo, 丹增 加措)
Palden Gyatso (Bandan Jiacuo, 班旦 加措)
Sangay Palden (Sangji Banden, 桑吉 班旦)
Palden Yignyin (Bandan Yunian, 班旦由念)
Rabsel (Resai, 热)
Ludup Soepa (Lezhu Suoba, 乐珠 索坝)
Yunten Gyatso (Yongdan Jiacuo, 永旦 加措)

DETENTIONS
Tenzin Gyatso, detained July 20, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Palden Gyatso, detained July 21, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Sangay Palden, detained July 21, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Palden Yignyin, detained July 24, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Rabsel, detained July 27, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Ludup Soepa, detained July 27, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Yunten Gyatso, detained July 31, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Dzoege, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Kunchok Sonam(Gongqu Suonan, 贡曲索南)
Date: July 20, 2013
Location: Dzoege
ICT report:Teenage Tibetan monk dies after self-immolation in Dzoege,” July 22, 2013

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Monks at the same monastery

At least seven Tibetans were detained, including his relatives, following the self-immolation of monk Konchok Sonam, 18, on July 20, 2013, in Dzoege, Ngaba prefecture, Sichuan province. Konchok Sonam set fire to himself outside his monastery, Thangkor Soktsang, in Dzoege (in Chinese, Ruo’ergai), Ngaba.

Radio Free Asia reported a source saying: “On the night of July 21, Kunchok Sonam’s teacher, his mother, and relatives were taken away and were thoroughly interrogated. They were released on the morning of July 22.”[25]

Monk Tenzin Gyatso, 32, was detained on the same day as the self-immolation in his residence at the monastery. The night afterwards, on July 21, 2013, Sangay Palden, 25, was detained, and Palden Yignyin (he was a lay person) was detained on July 24, 2013.

On July 27, 2013, Rabsel and Ludup Soepa were arrested. On July 31, 34-year old Yunten Gyatso from Soktsang Township was detained.

Tibetan exile sources said that they were among 20 Tibetans held since the self-immolation. On the evening following the self-immolation, the authorities launched a raid on the monastery in an attempt to take away his body, which monks were protecting. They failed in doing so, according to Tibetan exile sources, and so proceeded to detain other monks. Full details of those still in custody are not known.

Kunchok Sonam was regarded as ‘exceptional’ in his studies at the Soktsang monastery. He had told friends that living under Chinese rule in Tibet had brought too much suffering.


22. Three detained and feared to have been disappeared following self-immolation of Tsering Gyal in Golog (November 2013)

NAMES
Gelak (Gele, 格乐)
Tselha Kyab (Caila Jie, 才拉杰)
Tsekyab (Cai jie, 才杰)

DETENTIONS
Gelak, detained January 18, 2014, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Tselha Kyab, detained January 18, 2014, whereabouts unknown to ICT
Tsekyab, detained January 18, 2014, whereabouts unknown to ICT

LOCATION
Pema county, Golog prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Tsering Gyal(Cairang Jia, 才让加)
Date: November 11, 2013
Location: Pema county
ICT report:Tibetans gather at monastery in Golok after self-immolation of young monk,” November 11, 2013

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Gelak was from same monastery

Two monks were dragged from their rooms at night and a woman badly beaten for having a picture of a monk who self-immolated on her cellphone, according to Tibetan sources.

The three Tibetans were detained following the self-immolation of 20-year old monk Tsering Gyal on November 11, 2013, in Pema county, Golog Prefecture, Qinghai province. Tsering Gyal, who was from Akyong monastery, was heard calling the name of the Dalai Lama as he ran down the road in flames.

Security was intensified in the area following the self-immolation. A senior monk called Gelek from Akyang monastery was detained on January 18, 2014, together with his brother Tselha Kyab and a local man called Tsekyab. It is not known if they are still in custody.

Radio Free Asia reported that a government worker in Pema county was detained and assaulted by police “for carrying a photo of Tsering Gyal on her mobile phone,” one source said. “A woman named Yangtso, a government employee in Chokru village, was called to the police station several times and was finally detained for carrying a photo of Tsering Gyal on her mobile phone,” the source said. “She was beaten and severely injured and was taken to hospital,” the source said, adding, “She was also dismissed from her government job.”[26]


23. Five detained (four released) following the self-immolation of Phagmo Samdup in Malho (February 2014)

NAMES
Gyatso(Jiacuo, 加措)
Paldor(Baduo, 巴多)
Paldor’s wife(Baduo, 巴多 (her name remains unknown to ICT))
Pema (Wanma, 万玛)
Tseten Gyal(Caidan Jia, 才旦加)

DETENTIONS
Gyatso, detained February 2014, released
Paldor, detained February 2014, released
Paldor’s wife (Unknown), released
Pema (if not Paldor’s wife), released
Tseten Gyal, may still be in detention

LOCATION
Dokarmo town, Tsekhog county, Malho prefecture, Qinghai province

ASSOCIATED SELF-IMMOLATION

Name: Phagmo Samdup (Pengmuo Sangzhu, 鹏莫桑珠)
Date: February 5, 2014
Location: Tsekhog, Malho prefecture, Qinghai province
ICT report:Self-immolation of Tibetan father of two in Tsekhog,” February 7, 2014

ASSOCIATION TO THE SELF-IMMOLATION: Mostly family members

Five people including family members of the self-immolator were detained in February 2014 following the self-immolation and death of Phagmo Samdup, a father of two in his late twenties, on February 5, 2014 in Tsekhog county, Malho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province.[27] The detainees were identified as Gyatso, Phagmo Samdup’s younger brother, Paldor and his wife, Pema, and Tseten Gyal, and all of them were from the same village in Dokarmo. Four of them were released following interrogation at the local detention center, but Tseten Gyal is believed to be still in detention, according to Tibetan exile sources.

Tight security was immediately imposed in the area, with armed police stationed outside his family home. Phagmo Samdup’s family were not allowed to invite any monks to carry out traditional prayers for his death, and local officials warned them that if they did so, the monastery would be shut down and individuals arrested, according to the same sources.

Phagmo Samdup from Dokarmo was the fifth Tibetan in the Tsekhog area to self-immolate, on February 5, 2014.


Accusation of murder against Tibetan man whose wife may have self-immolated

Dolma Kyab (Zhuoma Jie, 卓玛杰), sentenced

There are serious concerns for a Tibetan man, Dolma Kyab, who was sentenced to death in August (2013) after being accused of murdering his wife, Kunchok Wangmo. Reports from Tibetan sources indicate that she may have self-immolated and that the authorities have sought to build a case against Dolma Kyab. The trial was held in secret and the state media made no mention of any evidence other than a ‘confession’ by Dolma Kyab, who has been tortured according to Tibetan sources in exile.

Dolma Kyab (Chinese transliteration: Drolma Gya), was sentenced to death by the Intermediate People’s Court in Ngaba for “killing his wife and burning her body to make it look as if she had self-immolated” according to the Chinese state media on August 16, 2013.

The imposition of the death penalty is rare in Tibet and there are concerns that the verdict may have been influenced by political circumstances. Dolma Kyab is being held in prison in Barkham, the capital of Ngaba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province. According to Tibetan sources in exile, he has been severely tortured.

A death penalty case must be reviewed by a higher court according to Chinese law. If a first trial by an intermediate people’s court hands down the death penalty, the first appeal is conducted by a High People’s Court’ and also by the Supreme People’s Court. The higher courts have the power to change the verdict, including the imposition of a death sentence suspended for two years, which generally means life imprisonment. If the death penalty is upheld without reprieve, the execution is generally carried out shortly afterwards. The current status of Dolma Kyab’s case is not known.

Tibetan sources report that Dolma Kyab was tortured prior to his trial, and that he has declared his innocence. His current welfare is not known. According to the same sources, it appears that Dolma Kyab did not receive a fair trial and due process, without effective legal counsel of his own choosing. The state media report on his sentencing makes no mention of any evidence in this case other than a ‘confession’, and it is known that torture is frequently used to extract confessions in China.

The circumstances of the case are still unclear due to the oppressive political environment and climate of fear in the area. According to some Tibetan sources, which could not be fully confirmed, Kunchok Wangmo set fire to herself late at night in March, 2013, and died. The authorities in Ngaba appear to have sought to build a case against Dolma Kyab, accusing him of killing his wife. Various Tibetan sources reported that on the morning after Kunchok Wangmo’s death, security officials came to the family home and offered substantial bribes for Dolma Kyab to say that she had committed suicide due to family problems. The same sources say that his arrest followed his refusal to do so, although full details of the circumstances are not known.


Guide to Geographical Terms

For clarity and consistency, this report uses the Tibetan name for geographical jurisdiction at the town, county and prefecture level, and the Chinese name at the province level. The chart below shows the Tibetan and Chinese names for each of the jurisdictions referenced in the report.

County Prefecture Province/Region
Luchu (Tibetan)
Luqu (Chinese) County
Kanlho (Tibetan)
Gannan (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Gansu (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Sangchu (Tibetan)
Xiahe (Chinese)
County
Kanlho (Tibetan)
Gannan (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Gansu (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Tsekhog (Tibetan)
Zeku (Chinese)
County
Mahlo (Tibetan)
Huangnan (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Rebkong (Tibetan)
Tongren (Chinese)
County
Mahlo (Tibetan)
Huangnan (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Yadzi (Tibetan)
Xunhua (Chinese)
Salar Autonomous County
Tsoshar (Tibetan)
Haidong (Chinese)
prefecture-level city*
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Bayan (Tibetan)
Hualong (Chinese)
County
Tsoshar (Tibetan)
Haidong (Chinese)
prefecture-level city*
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Tsongkha Khar (Tibetan)

Ping’an (Chinese) County
Tsoshar (Tibetan)
Haidong (Chinese)
prefecture-level city*
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Themchen (Tibetan)
Tianjun (Chinese)
County
Tsonub (Tibetan)
Haixi (Chinese)
Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Darlan Kha (Tibetan)
Dulan (Chinese)
County
Tsonub (Tibetan)
Haixi (Chinese)
Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Pema (Tibetan)
Banma (Chinese)
County
Golog (Tibetan)
Guoluo (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Qinghai (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Ngaba (Tibetan)
Aba (Chinese)
County
Ngaba (Tibetan)
Aba (Chinese)
Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Sichuan (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Dzoege (Tibetan)
Ruo’ergai (Chinese)
County
Ngaba (Tibetan)
Aba (Chinese)
Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Sichuan (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Kakhok (Tibetan)

Hongyuan (Chinese)
County
Ngaba (Tibetan)
Aba (Chinese)
Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Sichuan (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Barkham (Tibetan)
Barkam (Chinese)
County
Ngaba (Tibetan)
Aba (Chinese)
Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Sichuan (Chinese)
Amdo (Tibetan)
Tawu or Dawu (Tibetan)
Daofu (Chinese)
County
Kardze (Tibetan)
Garze (Chinese)
Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Sichuan (Chinese)
Kham (Tibetan)
Nagchu (Tibetan)
Naqu (Chinese)
County
Nagchu (Tibetan)
Naqu (Chinese)
Prefecture
Tibet Autonomous Region (Chinese)
U-Tsang and Kham (Tibetan)



* Tsoshar/Haidong was upgraded from a prefecture to a prefecture-level city on February 8, 2013. For simplicity, the entries in this
report refer to it as a prefecture.


Footnotes
[1] The following definition for “disappearances” is used for this report: “[…] ‘enforced disappearance’ is considered to be the arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law.” (Article 2 of the “International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance”); in some cases, evidence on the whereabouts of individuals was limited, however, when circumstances indicated, there is a “fear for disappearance,” e.g. when ICT has not been able to fully confirm or re-confirm the whereabouts of an individual, due to restrictions of access to Tibet;

[2] Xinhua, August 31, 2011: “Another two Tibetan monks sentenced in self-immolation, murder case”;

[3] Associated Press, January 31, 2013: “First Tibet ‘self-immolation’ convictions in China, as fiery deaths near 100”;

[4] CECC report, October 11, 2011, http://www.cecc.gov/publications/commission-analysis/county-court-convicts-monks-of-intentional-homicide-for-sheltering;

[5] While earlier self-immolations were dominated by Ngaba monks, predominantly from Kirti monastery, later a broader geographical spread of self-immolations was evident, and more laypeople began to set fire to themselves;

[6] International Campaign for Tibet, August, 2008: “Tibet at a Turning Point: The Spring Uprising and China’s Crackdown” see: http://www.savetibet.org/tibet-at-a-turning-point, p. 58;

[7] International Campaign for Tibet, April 20, 2011: “Dramatic new footage reveals Ngaba crackdown, refutes Chinese claims of ‘normal life,’” see: http://www.savetibet.org/dramatic-new-footage-reveals-ngaba-crackdown-refutes-chinese-claims-of-normal-life;

[8] This account is based on a translation from the Tibetan of an audio recording of Phuntsog’s last words, conveyed through a Tibetan who was with him at the time and whose identity is withheld;

[9] Kesang Jinpa was editor and contributor to the Amdo literary journal called “I of the modern age,” and was arrested on charges of separatist activity on July 19, 2010, a month after the birth of his second daughter, and sentenced to three years in prison. He has now been released;

[10] A Tibetan called Phuntsog who had been adopted by Tsering Kyi’s family was also detained, according to the Kirti monks in exile, who give a full account of the details in the report “Iron Hare 2011: Flame of Resistance,” by the Dharamsala-based “Dhomay Alliance for Freedom and Justice”, which can be downloaded from ICT’s website at: http://www.savetibet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Dhomay-2012-9-12-copy.pdf;

[11] Xinhua, March 17, 2011: “Tibetan monk dies of self-immolation in SW China.” The Chinese state television documentary, “The Dalai clique and the self-immolation incident,” that was aired in May 2012 did acknowledge that Phuntsog was 19;

[12] International Campaign for Tibet, October 5, 2012: “Second Tibetan dies in less than a week as self-immolations continue in Tibet”;

[13] “China News”, Febuary 1, 2013: “四名藏族人阻止武警救自焚者致其死亡 主犯获刑12年”;
http://news.china.com.cn/2013-02/01/content_27855036.htm;

[14] International Campaign for Tibet, February 4, 2013: “Six Tibetans in Gansu sentenced after protecting body of self-immolator in aggressive drive to criminalize self-immolations”;

[15] International Campaign for Tibet, October 23, 2013, ibid.;

[16] International Campaign for Tibet, October 26, 2012: “Self-immolation of Tibetan nomad in twenties in restive area of Amchok”;

[17] Xinhua, February 7, 2013: “青海藏区系列自焚案内幕揭秘:达赖集团索命骗钱”, http://politics.gmw.cn/2013-02/07/content_6660525.htm;

[18] Xinhua, February 8, 2013: “Man sentenced over inciting self-immolation”, http://www.china.org.cn/china/2013-02/08/content_27924369.htm;

[19] Ibid.;

[20] Xinhua, February 9, 2013: “China jails Tibetan man for inciting secession”, http://www.china.org.cn/china/2013-02/09/content_27929315.htm;

[21] “Gansu Daily”, March 1, 2013: “碌曲“11·29”故意杀人案一审宣判”; http://gansu.gansudaily.com.cn/system/2013/03/01/013720791.shtml;

[22] http://www.tchrd.org/2014/01/a-year-after-arrest-monk-sentenced-to-6-years-in-prison-over-self-immolation/;

[23] TCHRD report, http://www.tchrd.org/2012/12/tibetan-self-immolator-battling-for-life-may-lose-both-legs/;

[24] International Campaign for Tibet, December 10, 2012: “Three Tibetans self-immolate in two days during important Buddhist anniversary: images of troops in Lhasa as Tibetans pray”, http://www.savetibet.org/three-tibetans-self-immolate-in-two-days-during-important-buddhist-anniversary-images-of-troops-in-lhasa-as-tibetans-pray/;

[25] RFA, July 26, 2013: “Five Tibetans Detained In Connection With Self-Immolation”, http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/detention-07262013162043.html.

[26] RFA, December 18, 2013: “China Tightens Controls After Tibetan Self-Immolation”;

[27] ICT report, “Self-immolation of Tibetan father of two in Tsekhog,” February 7, 2014, http://www.savetibet.org/self-immolation-of-tibetan-father-of-two-in-tsekhog/

 

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